Title: INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND COLLECTIVE
SECURITY IN THE ERA OF INTIMIDATION: AN APPRAISAL OF
THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS
Authors: Aboh, James Ajang & Otora, Osmond Agbor
Volume:2 Issue: 1
Aboh, James Ajang & Otora, Osmond Agbor
Department of History and International Studies
University of Calabar, Calabar
MLA 8 Ajang, Aboh, James, and Otora, Osmond Agbor. "INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND COLLECTIVE SECURITY IN THE ERA OF INTIMIDATION: AN APPRAISAL OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS." Int. J. Arts&Humanities, vol. 2, no. 1, Jan. 2018, pp. 1-12, journal-ijah.org/more2018.php?id=1. Accessed 2018.
APA Ajang, A., & Agbor, O. (2018, January). INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND COLLECTIVE SECURITY IN THE ERA OF INTIMIDATION: AN APPRAISAL OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS. Int. J. Arts&Humanities, 2(1), 1-12. Retrieved from http://journal-ijah.org/more2018.php?id=1
Chicago Ajang, Aboh, James, and Otora, Osmond Agbor. "INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND COLLECTIVE SECURITY IN THE ERA OF INTIMIDATION: AN APPRAISAL OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS." Int. J. Arts&Humanities 2, no. 1 (January 2018), 1-12. Accessed , 2018. http://journal-ijah.org/more2018.php?id=1.
References . Archer, C. (1983). International Organizations. London: Allen and Unwin.
. Aremu, Fatai A. (2013). "International Organisations." In Hassan A. Saliu and Fatai A. Aremu
(eds.) Introduction to International Relations. Ilorin: African Centre for Peace Research,
Empowerment and Documentation (ACPRED).
. Asogwa, F. C. (1999). Understanding International Relations. Enugu: Vougasen Ltd.
. Bilgrami, S. J. R. (1977). International Organizations: A View from Within (1sted.). New Delhi:
Vikas Publishing House.
. Cheever, Daniel S. and Hailand, F. A (1954). Organizing for Peace: International Organizations
in World Affairs. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
. Claude, I. J. (1984). Swords into Plowshares: The Problem and Prospects of International
Organizations. New York: Random House.
. Eloranta, Jari. (2005). "Why did the League of Nations Fail?" Paper presented at the Sixth
European Historical Economics Society Conference, 9-10 September, Historical Center of the
former Imperial Ottoman Bank, Istanbul.
. Halliday, F. (1994). Rethinking International Relations. Vancouver: UBC Press.
. Hodges, M. (1978). "Integration Theory." In Taylor Trevor (ed.) Approaches and Theory in
International Relations. London: Longman.
. Kegley, C. and Wittkopf, E. (1989). World Politics: Trends and Transformation. New York:
. Kennedy, P. (1989). The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers. Economic Change and Military
Conflict from 1500 to 2000. London: Fontana Press.
. LeRoy, A. B. (1995). Historical Dictionary of the United Nations. New York: Scarecras Press.
. Murray, W. (1984). The Change in the European Balance of Power, 1938-1939: The Path to
Ruin. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press.
. Myers, D. P. (1935). Handbook of the League of Nations. Boston: World Peace Foundation.
. Neibuhr, R. (1971). "The Illusion of World Government." In Lijphart, A. (ed.) World Politics:
The Writings of Theorists and Practitioners, Classical and Modern. Boston: Allyn Bacon.
. Northedge, F. S. (1986). The League of Nations: Its Life and Times, 1920-1946. Leicester,
Leicester University Press.
. Obi, Emeka A. and Ozor, Cyril O. (2009). The Process of International Relations: Theories,
Processes and Institutions. Onitsha: Bookpoint Educational Ltd.
. Ojo, O. and Sesay, A. (2002). Concepts in International Relations. Ile-Ife: Obafemi Awolowo
University Press, Ltd.
. Papp, Daniel. (1988). Contemporary International Relations: Framework for Understanding.
New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
. Potter, P. B. (1935). An Introduction in the Study of International Organization. New York:
. Scott, G. (1973). The rise and fall of the League of Nations. London, Hutchinson.
The Chronicle of the 20th Century, (1988). New York: Times International.
Keywords: International Organizations; Threats; Collective Security; Interwar Years;
Abstract: The paper examines international organizations as a framework of collective security with
reference to League of Nations and argues that the failure of the League of Nations had two
important dimensions: (1) The failure to provide adequate security guarantee for its members
(like an alliance), thus encouraging more aggressive policies especially by the authoritarian
states and leading to an arms race; (2) The failure of the League to achieve the disarmament
goals it set out in the 1920s and 1930s, such as imposition of military spending constraints.
Anchored on the theory of realism, it is indicated that the political and economic turmoil of the
interwar years including the aggregate weakness of the League to enforce its covenant were
adequately explored by Japan and Germany to further their expansionist tendencies. The analysis
further show that, the failure of the League of Nations to properly address issues of threats to
international peace and security suggests that, the weaknesses were implanted at its formative
stage. Indeed, a careful understanding of the military rivalries, regime changes, and, ultimately,
the outbreak of World War II point to the fact that the League failed to provide credible security
guarantees before and during the interwar period.
The Journal of Arts and Humanities Inviting Papers/Articles for Current Issue Volume 3 Issue 1 January 2019.
Submit your Paper through Online Submission System. Authors also can Send Paper to email@example.com ....... Impact Factor: 2.072
Editor in Chief IJAH
To Join our Editorial Board send your C.V. to firstname.lastname@example.org