. Adekola, B. O. (2008). Some predictors of students achievement in english grammar and
comprehension in Ogun State public senior secondary schools. A Ph.D. post-field report
presented at the Departmental Seminar of Curriculum Studies an Instructional
Technology, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye.
. Adetunde, A. I., & Asare, B. (2009).Comparative performance of day and boarding students in
secondary school certificate mathematics examinations: A Case Study of KasenaNankana
and Asuogyaman Districts of Ghana. Academic Arena, 1(4), 73-96.
. Agliata, R. (2007). College students' adjustments: The role of parent-college student expectation
discrepancies and communication reciprocity. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37,
. Ajayi, I. A. (2006).The influence of school type and location on resource availability and pupils
learning outcome in primary schools in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Educational Thought, 5 (1),
. Alexander, K. L., & Entwisle, D. R. (1988). The schooling process in first grade: Two sample a
decade apart. American Educational Research Journal, 23, 587-613.
. Alexander, K. L., & Pallas, A. M. (1984). Curriculum reform and school performance: An
evaluation of the "New Basics." American Journal of Education, 92, 391-420.
. Aremu, A. (2000). Motivating Learners for more effective achievement in mathematics. Nigerian
Journal of Applied Psychology, 4(1), 27-34.
. Assouline, S. G., Colangelo, N., Ihrig, D., & Forstadt, L. (2006). Attributional choices for
academic success and failure by intellectually gifted students. Gifted Child Quarterly, 50,
. Bandura, A., Barbaranelli, C., Caprara, G. V. & Pastorelli, C. (2001). Self-efficacy beliefs as
shapers of children's aspirations and career trajectories. Child Development, 72 (1), 187-
. Bee, H. L. (1992). Prediction of IQ and language skill from perinatal status, child performance,
family characteristics, and mother-infant interaction. Child Development, 53, 1134-1156.
. Blaver, A. (2010). An examination of gender, home language, self-appraisals, and mathematics
achievement among Hispanic youth. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A, The
Humanities and Social Sciences.
. Bloom, B. (ed.) (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: Handbook 1: Cognitive domain.
. Boujlaleb, M. (2006). Adolescent and peer pressure applied independent learning method in AlAkhawayn
University. Retrieved from wwww.jstore.com.
. Bouffard. T., Boisvert, J., Vezeau, C., & Larouche, C. (1995).The impacts of goal orientation on
self-regulation and performance among college students. British Journal of Educational
Psychology, 65, 317-329.
. Burns, A., & Darling, N. (2002). Peer pressure is not peer influence. The Education Digest, 68,
. Carbonaro, W. (2005). Tracking students' efforts and academic achievement. Sociology of
Education, 78 (1), 29-49.
. Carman, S., & Zhang, M. (2008). Classroom peer and academic achievement: Evidence from a
Chinese Middle School. Journal of Educational Psychology, 10, 31-49.
. Carpenter, W. (2000). Ten years of silver bullets: Dissenting thoughts on educational reform. Phi
Delta Kappan, 81, 383-389.
. Castrogiovanni, D. (2002). Adolescence: Peer groups. Retrieved January 24, 2014, from
. Chen, X., Chang, L., & He, Y. (2003). The peer group as a context: Mediating and moderating
effects on relations between academic achievement and social functioning in Chinese
children. Child Development, 74, 710-727.
. Cheng, C. Y. (1996). School Effectiveness and School-based Management: A Mechanism for
Development. London: Falmer Press.
. Coleman, J. S., Campbell, E. Q., Hobson, C. J., McPartland, F., Mood, A. M., Weinfeld, F. D.
(1966). Equality of educational opportunity. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing
. Considine, G., & Zappala, G. (2002). Influence of social and economic disadvantage in the
academic performance of school students in Australia. Journal of Sociology, 38, 129-148.
. Cool, V. A., & Keith, T. Z. (1991). Testing a model of school learning: Direct and indirect
effects on academic achievement. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 16, 28-44.
. Desforges, C., & Abouchaar, A. (2003). The impact of parent involvement, parent support and
family education on pupil achievement and adjustment: A literature review.
Department of Education and Skill: Queen's Printer.
. Dills, K. A. (2006). Trends in the relationship between socioeconomic status and academic
achievement. Retrieved September 30, 2013 from http://papers.ssrn.com/
. Dembo, T. (1931). Der argeralsdynamisches problem. Psychol. Forsch., 15, 1-144.
. Donkor, A. K. (2010). Parental involvement in education in Ghana: The case of a private
elementary school. International Journal about Parents in Education, 4 (1), 23-38.
. Eamon, M. K. (2005). Social-demographic, school, neighbourhood and parenting influence on
academic achievement of Latino young adolescents. Journal of youth and adolescence,
34 (2), 163-175.
. Egbule, J. F. (2004). Practical guide to a successful project or thesis in writing and defence.
Owerri: Whyte and Whyte Publishers.
. Elliot, A. (2007). A conceptual history of the achievement goal construct. In A. Elliot & C.
Dweck (Eds.), Handbook of competence and motivation (pp.52-72). New York: Guilford
. Epstein, J. L. (2001). School, family, and community partnerships: Preparing educators and
improving schools. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
. Epstein, J. L. (2005). School-initiated family and community partnerships. In T. Erb (Ed.). This
we believe in action: Implementing successful middle level schools (pp.77-96).
Westerville, OH: National Middle School Association.
. Fuligni, A. J., Eccles, J. S., Barber, B. L., & Clements, P. (2001). Early adolescent peer
orientation and adjustment during high school. Developmental Psychology, 37 (1), 28-36.
. Georgiou, S. N. (2007). Parental involvement: Beyond demographics. International Journal
about Parentsin Education, 1, 59-62.
. Goodman, A., & Gregg, P. (2010). 'Poorer children's educational attainment: how important are
attitudes and behaviour?' York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation
. Grave, B. (2011).The effect of student time allocation on academic achievement. Education
Economics, 19 (3), 291-310.
. Grissmer, R. H. (2003). Beyond helping with homework: Parents and children doing
mathematics at home. Teaching Children Mathematics, 14, 120-131.
. Gutman, L., & Akerman, R. (2008). Determinants of aspirations. Centre for Research on the
Wider Benefits of Learning Research Project 27. London: Institute of Education.
. Harackiewicz, J. M. (1996). Approach and avoidance achievement goals and intrinsic
motivation: A mediational analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70,
. Hijazi, S. T., & Naqvi, S. M. M. R. (2006). 'Factors affecting students' performance: A case of
private colleges'. Bangladesh E-Journal of Sociology, 3 (1), 65-99.
. Haynie, D. (2002). The relative nature of peer delinquency. Journal of Quantitative criminology,
. Hill, N. E., & Craft, S. A. (2003). Parent-school involvement and school performance: Mediated
pathways among socioeconomically comparable African American and Euro-American
families. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96, 74-83.
. Hoyle, E. (1986). Policies of school management. Suffolk: The Press Ltd.
. Huitt, W. (2007). Success in the conceptual age. Educational Psychology Interactive, 29, 123-
. Jacob, B., & Wilder, T. (2010).Wilder educational expectations and attainment. NBER Working
Paper No.15683: National Bureau of Economic Research
. Jeynes, W. H. (2002). Examining the effects of parental absence on the academic achievement of
adolescents: The challenge of controlling for family income. Journal of family and
Economic Issues, 23 (2), 65-78.
. Johnson, V. E. (2003). Grade inflation: A crisis in college education. New York, NY: SpringerVerlag.
. Kobayashi, E. (2005). Perceived parental expectations among Chinese American College
Students. The role of perceived discrepancy and culture in psychological distress.
ProQuest Digital Dissertations, 31, 70-85.
. Lewin, K., Dembo, T., Festinger, L., & Sears, P. S. (1944). Level of aspiration. In J. M. V.
Hundt (Ed.), Personality and the behavior disorders. (pp 333-378). New York: Roland
. Maurin E. (2002)."The impact of parental income on early schooling transitions: A reexamination
using data over three generations". Journal of Public Economics, 85 (3),
. Mbathia, M. (2005). Cream for Law and Medicine. The Standard. Nairobi: The Standard Ltd.
Musgrave, C. B. (2000). Environmental factors affecting attitude towards science and
mathematics. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91(1), 382-394.
. Niggli, A., Trautwein, U., Schnyder, I., Ludtke, O., & Neumann, M. (2007). Parental homework
support can be beneficial, but parental intrusion is detrimental: Family background,
parental homework supervision, and performance gains. PsychologieinErziehung und
Unterricht, 54, 1-14.
. No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, Pub. L. No. 107-110, 115 Stat. 1425 (2002)
. Nyarko, K., & Vorgelegt, V. (2007). Parental involvement: A sine qua non in adolescents'
educational achievement. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis Ludwig-Maximilians University,
. Nyarko, K. (2011). Parental school involvement: The case of Ghana. Journal of Emerging
Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies, 2(5), 378-381.
. Oishi, S., & Sullivan, H. W. (2005).The mediating role of parental expectations in culture and
well-being. Journal of Personality, 73, 1267-1294.
. Opare, J. A., & Dramanu, B. Y. (2002). Students' academic performance. Academic effort as an
intervening variable. Ife Psychology, 10(2), 136-148.
. Osiki, J. O. (2001). Effects of remedial training programme on the management of learning
acquisition defectiveness and poor study habits problems of selected subjects in a
community grammar school. Nigerian Journal of Applied Psychology, 6 (2) 107-115.
. Parker, J. D. A., Duffy, J., Wood, L. M., Bond, B. J., & Hogan, M. J. (2005). Academic
achievement and emotional intelligence: Predicting the successful transition from high
school to university. Journal of the First-Year Experience & Students in Transition, 17,
. Pettigrove, G. (2007). Ambitions. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice, 10, 53-68.
Phan, H. P. (2008). Exploring students' reflective thinking practice, processing strategies, efforts
and achievement goal-orientation. Educational Psychology, 29 (3), 297-313.
. Phillipson, S., & Phillipson, S. (2007) 'Academic expectations, belief of ability, and involvement
by parents as predictors of child achievement: A cross-cultural comparison'. Educational
Psychology, 27 (3), 329-348.
. Pintrich, P. R. (2004). A conceptual framework for assessing motivation and self-regulated
learning in college students. Educational Psychology Review, 16, 385-407.
. Plant, E. A., Ericsson, K. A., Hill, L., & Asberg, K. (2005). Why study time does not predict
grade point average across college students: Implications of deliberate practice for
academic performance. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 30, 96-116.
. Quaglia, R. J., & Cobb, C. D. (1996). Toward a theory of student aspirations. Journal of
Research in Rural Education, 12, 127-132.
. Ryan, A. M. (2000). The peer group as a context for the development of young adolescent
motivation and achievement. Child Development, 72, 1135-1150.
. Sarantakos, S. (1997). Social research. New York: Palgrave Publishers Ltd.
. Sheldon, S. B., & Epstein, J. L. (2005). Involvement counts: Family and community partnerships
and mathematics achievement. Journal of Educational Research, 98, 196-206.
. Walberg, H., & Paik, S. (2000). Effective educational practices. Brussels, Belgium: International
Academy of Education. Retrieved September 20014, from
. Wentzel, K. R., & Caldwell, K. (1997). Friendships, peer acceptance, and group membership:
Relations to academic achievement in middle school. Child Development, 68 (6), 1198-
. Zhan, M. (2005). Assets, parental expectations, involvement and children educational
development. Children and Youth Services Review, 28, 961-975.
. Zimmerman, B. J., & Risenberg, R. (1997). Self-regulatory dimensions of academic learning and
motivation. In G. Phye (Ed), Handbook of academic learning (pp. 105-125). New York: